Food supplements are developed from food, herbs, minerals, and their synthetic substances, using conventionally pharmaceutical forms, for example, pill, tablet, capsule, granule, powder, solution, suspension, emulsion, and fluidextract…Among of them, tablet, capsule, granule, powder, and solution are the most popular forms.
IMC manufactures tablets
Tablet is the most popular and common form in use today. Tablets may be defined as the solid unit dosage form of medicament, designed to swallow, chew, hold in the mouth, insert in to the rectum or vagina, and dissolve in water to drink…There are two main types of tablet, including pill and caplet.
Caplet is a solid dosage form prepared by compression of one or some active substances with or without excipients such as diluents, disintegrants, adhesives, lubricants, and film coating agents…Caplet is now made in many shapes and colors like flattened cylinder, oblong or other shapes.
Caplet is used widely because it has many advantages. In term of using, the main merits of tablet such as relatively accurate dividing a dose, small volume and light weight, being in solid form… make it easy and convenient to use and transport. Besides, this form has a wide range of administration like taken orally, sublingually, buccally, rectally or intravaginally… Moreover, it can be printed the product name on the face of caplet. In term of technology, the active substances in caplet are stable, making a longer shelf-life of this form compared to liquid and powder forms because of the restriction on exposing active substances to the factors which facilitate chemical decomposition such as oxygen, air, and humidity. Many active substances can be combined in a caplet. This form also can limit the unpleasant smells or tastes of active substances, thank to compression and film coating, which is effective in masking taste and odor. On other hand, many technologies can be applied to protect active compounds, among which moisture-resistant or enteric coating, and sustained-release, controlled-release or targeted delivery systems helping prolong release of substances or selectively transport substances to targeted tissues, organs, and cell are typical examples.
Beside above advantages, caplet from also have some disadvantages: Not all substances can be prepared in caplet form. After compression, press force and excipients may lower the exposed surface area of substance to the dissolution medium, leading reduction in solubility and bioavailability of substances with low solubility. In pharmaceutical process, depending on the technology used, stability of substance maybe effected by several factors like press force, humidity, heat and excipients…
Pill was originally defined as a small, round, solid pharmaceutical oral dosage form of medication. Pill is made from active substances, herbal powder, or herbal extracts, combined with excipients to gain a determined volume for oral administration. Pill is commonly use in preparing traditional medicine or food supplement made from herbs.
Beside the basic advantages of solid dosage forms such as stability, reduction in risk of chemical decomposition, ability to combine many types of active compound in a unit, small volume and light weight, which make it easy to transport and storage, many technologies can be apply to manufacturing pills. It may help prolong release of substances or selectively transport substances to targeted tissues, organs, and cell.
Regarding to demerits, difficulty in quality standardization is the main drawback of this form because of high variation in weight of each unit. Herbal pill, especially, contains many photochemical substances, which almost undetermined, leading to difficulty in quality control. Besides, pills are commonly manufactured in small scale, so it is difficult to maintain the hygiene.
IMC manufactures granules and powders
Powder is a solid and dry dosage form, generated from one or a mixture of different medicinal powders (including active compounds so herb powders, extract powders) which has a determined particle size. This form is generated by mixing components to achieve a homogeneous mixture for internal or external administration. The main advantages of this form are simple pharmaceutical technology, not using complicated equipment. Being a solid form bring it easy package and transport, less interaction and ability to combine any substances and ingredients in a formula. During manufacturing process, compositions are not affected by heat, humidity, and press force. It is relatively stable in storage with long shelf life and suitable for substances which are easily hydrolyzed, oxidized, and decomposed in manufacturing process. Moreover, high exposed surface area, less effects of press force and binder cause higher solubility and bioavailability compared to other dosage form. However, the very large exposed surface area makes it very hygroscopic, so the packaging should be able to resist moisture well; some sensitive compounds need to be packed in vacuum packages to limit the exposure of substances with air and water vapor.
Granule is also a solid form, made from powder of active compounds and binder to form small porous particulars with the diameter of 1-2 mm. Granule is especially suitable for children with many advantages like powder form but using more complicated pharmaceutical technology, and being more likely to be affected by heat and humidity in some manufacture steps.
IMC manufactures capsule
Capsule is a solid and accurate-dividing-dose form, including two part: a shell known as a capsule and filling materials, which is prepared in a pharmaceutical form. The shell is combined with the substances and administrated in our stomach. After release the active compounds, the shell is digested in our body. The substances or filling materials may be prepared in pharmaceutical forms like solution, suspension, powders, granules, or even tablets.
Capsule is divided in to two types: hard capsule (the shell incluse two parts, the body and the cap, tightly fitted together) and soft capsule (the shell is one-piece container which is soft to touch, elastic and a bit flexible).
In term of use, capsule has many profits such as being easy to swallow due to the oblong shape and shiny capsule surface, being convenient and easy to storage and transport because the dose is divided and packed like tablets. In term of production, this form is easy to apply in large production due to its high productivity. Capsule has high bioavailability, thank to simple formula, which containing less excipients with less effects of technology compared to tablets. After administration, the shell quickly disintegrates to release active compounds.
However, with active ingredients having a property of gastrointestinal irritation, capsule is not the suitable form because when the shell breaks and releases substances massively, high concentration of substances may cause strong irritation.
IMC manufacture solution
Solution is a pharmaceutical form prepared by dissolving one or many active substances in a solvent or a mixture of solvents. Solution can be administered internally or externally. This form can be divided in to many types, including water solution, syrup, elixir…. Among of them, water solution and syrup are widely used in food supplement.
Water solution is generated by dissolution of one or some substances or herbal extracts in water. Because food supplements are orally administrated, some types of sugar, sweeteners and flavor are added to create a delicious, easy-to-drink taste for the products.
Syrup is also similar to water solution, but syrup is generally higher in viscosity than the water solution due to a high sugar concentration of 56-64%. Syrup is prepared by dissolving the active ingredient in single syrup with a high concentration of sugar (namely 165g sugar/ 100g of water and without active ingredients) or dissolved sugar into an active substance solution.
The advantage of this form is that active compounds are already dissolved in solvent so they are absorbed quirkier than solid form. It is also very convenient to use, especially for children and elder, patients with swallowing difficulty. However, solution form is usually unstable, because hydrolysis, racemization, chelation, chemical incompatibility, and growth of micro-organism may happen quirkier and easier, leading to the decomposition of active compounds and the damage of the products.
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